Needed material: 5ml Heparin blood
Tested is DDE (Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene)
DDT was the first insecticide developed in the 1940s. The peak year for use in the United States was 1959 when nearly 80 million pounds were applied. From that high point, usage declined steadily to about 13 million pounds in 1971, most of it applied to cotton. It was used worldwide for insect control among humans, homes and institutions, for animals, crops and gardens. Due to its adverse effects on the environment, on animals and humans, the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) issued a ban for DDT in 1972. In 1996, restrictions to limit DDT were enacted globally, but in 2006, WHO (World Health Organization) recommended its use again for indoor spray programs to combat malaria. The general use of the pesticide DDT will no longer be legal in the United States and European countries.
Organochlorines such as DDT are extremely persistent and accumulate in tissue. There is substantial evidence suggesting that DDT and its metabolite DDE act as endocrine disruptors, interfering with hormonal function.
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Prevalence of asthma increases with increasing dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) levels
Needed Material: 5ml Heparin blood
Lindane (gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane) kills insects on contact or as a stomach poison when ingested. It was first produced in the US in the 1950s. It was used to kill insects and parasites such as fleas, ticks and lice. Besides its agricultural uses, lindane was used in forestry for wood and timber protection, and as a household insecticide.
In 1985, Lindane was classified as a Restricted Use Pesticide.
Lindane long persists in the environment, and tends to bio-accumulate along food chains. It kills insects by overstimulating the central nervous system. Human poisonings have been reported and the WHO has listed it as 'moderately hazardous'. Among the chronic health effects are nervous disorders and increased liver weight. Children are significantly more susceptible to the toxic effects of Lindane.
Needed material: 30ml Urine
The Pyrethroid-Metabolites are tested: Metabolite 1 (C12CA), Metabolite 2 (m-PBA), Metabolite 3 (Br2CA)
Pyrethroids are widely used for moth production in wool carpets. Chronic exposure results are an increased urinary excretion.